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FM 23-5

for the U.S. Rifle, CALIBER .30, M1


Chapter 1.


1. Purpose and Scope

(a) This manual is a guide for commanders and instructors in presenting instruction and training in the mechanical operation of the M1 rifle. It includes a detailed description of the rifle and its general characteristics; procedures for disassembly and assembly; methods of loading; an explanation of functioning; a discussion of stoppages and immediate action; a description of the ammunition; and instructions on the care and cleaning of both the weapon and ammunition. The material presented is applicable, without modification, to both nuclear and non-nuclear warfare.

(b) Marksmanship training is covered in FM 23-71.

(c) Users of this manual are encouraged to submit recommended changes or comments to improve the manual. Comments should be keyed to the specific page, paragraph, and line of the text in which the change is recommended. Reasons should be provided for each comment to insure understanding and complete evaluation. Comments should be forwarded direct to the Commandant, U.S. Army Infantry School, Fort Benning, Ga.

2. Importance of Mechanical Training

The rifle is the soldier's basic weapon. It gives him an individual and powerful capability for combat. To get the most out of his individual combat capability, the soldier must develop two skills to an equal degree: he must be able to fire his weapon well enough to get hits on battlefield targets, and he must know enough about its working parts to keep them operating smoothly so the rifle will not fail him. The soldier gets his firing skill on marksmanship training ranges and he learns how to keep his rifle in firing condition from the mechanical training that is outlined in this manual.

3.Description of the Rifle

The U.S. rifle caliber .30, M1, (fig. 1) is an air-cooled, gas-operated, clip-fed, and semiautomatic shoulder weapon. This means that the air cools the barrel; that the power to cock the rifle and chamber the succeeding round comes from the expanding gas of the round fired previously; that it is loaded by inserting a metal clip (containing a maximum of eight rounds) into the receiver; and that the rifle fires one round each time the trigger is pulled.

4. General Data (Specifications)

Weight 9.5 pounds
Weight With bayonet M1 and sling M1907 11.2 pounds
Length: (over-all) rifle only 43.6 inches
Length (over-all) with bayonet M1 53.4 inches
Length of barrel 24 inches
Length of rifling 70.8 calibers (21.30 inches)
Rifling, old barrels Four grooves
Rifling, new barrels Two grooves
Rifling twist Right hand, one turn in 33.3 calibers (10 inches)
Depth of grooves, rifling 0.0040 inches
Type of mechanism Gas operated, semi-automatic
Loading device En-block clip
Sight radius 27.9 inches at 100 yard range
Sights 27.9 inches at 100 yard range
Sights: Front Fixed blade
Sights: Rear Adjustable peep. One click of elevation or windage moves the strike of the bullet .7 centimeters at 25 meters
Trigger pull: Minimum 5 1/2 pounds
Trigger pull: Maximum 7 1/2 pounds
Ammunition types Ball, AP, tracer, grenade - See Chapter 6.
Muzzle velocity (M-2 ammunition) 853 (2,800 feet/second) meters/sec
Chamber pressure 50,000 pounds per square inch (copper)
Maximum range 3,200 meters (3,450 yards)
Maximum effective range 460 meters. (Maximum effective range is the greatest distance at which a weapon my be expected to fire accurately to inflict casualties or damage.)
Maximum effective rate of fire 16 to 24 rounds per minute. (Although there is no prescribed maximum rate of fire, a trained rifleman can fire 16 to 24 aimed rounds per minute.)


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